Economic and Spatial Organization of the Textile Industry in Istanbul through the Twentieth Century
Research Abstract: The aim of Berkay’s study is to assess the characteristics of economic and spatial organization of industrial settlements in Istanbul through the case of textile industry along the republican period. 20th century for Turkish history is a period of severe political transformations, turbulent economic environment and non-negligible social, technological and organizational changes in textiles industry. Conventional approaches based upon aggregate data can unfortunately not duly account for endogenous local and sectoral mechanisms of industrial adaptation. So as to produce a satisfactory account for local and sectoral specificities, this study adopts a relatively new methodological approach. From another perspective, this study is an attempt to utilize the theoretical and technical tools of urban studies in order to test the orthodox hypotheses on the economic history of Turkey. More specifically, the spatial distribution patterns of Istanbul textile industry will be analyzed and mapped to make assessments on the episodes and characteristics of industrialization in Turkey.
Bio: Berkay Küçükbaşlar is a PhD student in Boğaziçi University, Atatürk Institute for Modern Turkish History. He finished his MA study at the same institution in 2015 with the thesis titled Small-Scale Industry Matters: Industrialization and Occupational Structure in Turkey between 1927 and 1945. He took part in various research projects as a researcher which are mainly concerned about occupational and demographic history since 2012. Lastly he finished his traineeship exchange on April 2016 by working for the Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure in Faculty of History, University of Cambridge. His main research interests include economic and social history, history of industrialization, economic geography, data visualization and mapping.
Bürge Elvan Erginli
Local and Non-local Social Networks of Migrants in Istanbul
Research Abstract: My research aims to investigate the structure of migrants’ social networks which is generated by relationships that the migrants have with people living inside or outside their neighbourhoods and to present the role of migrants’ residential places on their social networks. The focus is on the international migrants living in the districts of Bayrampaşa and Besiktaş who came from Macedonia, Kosovo and Bosnia regions and internal migrants located in Besiktaş who came from the provinces of Ankara and Eskisehir. These districts and migrant groups were selected in accordance with the results of Correspondence Analysis that reveal the degree of concentration of migrants in the districts of Istanbul. In line with surveys which have been conducted in the districts of Bayrampaşa and Besiktaş, migrants are associated to positions in social space by analysing their own attributes and characteristics of their local and nonlocal ties. This requires a specific type of survey and a method called Personal Network Analysis. The survey serves the purpose of gaining information on a respondent’s own attributes, generating her/his network with a determined number of persons that the respondent has a relationship with, and gaining information on attributes of these persons and characteristics (type, duration and frequency) of ties they have with the respondent. The structure of one’s network could be drawn up by analysing this information by personal network analysis. Information on individuals’ social networks, which will be gathered by personal (ego-centric) network analysis, will be analysed by Multiple Correspondence Analysis so that the relative positions of migrants in social space could be designated.
Bio: Bürge Elvan Erginli graduated from Istanbul Technical University, Department of Urban and Regional Planning in 2007 and received her master’s degree from the same Universtiy’s Regional Planning Programme in 2010. She worked as a researcher in the Social an Economic Geography section of the urban exhibition “Istanbul 1910-2010” which was opened within the framework of 2010 European Capital of Culture at Santral Istanbul. Between 2012-2015, she worked at Istanbul Şehir University, Center for Urban Studies as a researcher and participated in studies on Internal Migration in Turkey, electoral geography, Turkish family structure. She started her Ph.D. at ITU in 2010 and writing her thesis on “Migrants’ local and nonlocal social networks”.
Seda Kula Say
The Development of Istanbul Ports in the 19th Century: A Process in interaction with the Modernisation of the City
Research Abstract: My interest in the development of İstanbul ports, started with my findings about the plans for new docks on two sides of the Golden Horn on the order of Sultan Abdulmecid. This interest continued due to a further research for the building of customs houses in major Ottoman East-Mediterranean ports, namely Thessaloniki, Smyrna and Constantinople. My work on customs houses, which led hence to a feasibility study of a new research topic, lets me state that the development of Istanbul port, was in mutual cause and effect relationship with the modernisation and metropolisation of city of Istanbul. Following, in my research, I wish to study the development of Galata, Eminönü and Haydarpaşa ports in this perspective and throughout the late modern era, which would roughly span the duration between the reign of Selim III and the beginning of the First World War. Ports being center of continuous urban activity and international relations, their dynamics of change and growth shed light on sociopolitical, economical and finally urban and architectural phenomena of its time. So I believe that a multidisciplinary approach and rather comprehensive historical perspectives are essential in discussing the development of Istanbul ports, though my focus would be on late modern era and on manifold port-related urban/architectural transformations and practices.
Bio: Seda Kula Say holds a degree in Computer Engineering fom Boğaziçi University in Istanbul (BSc) and a degree in Architecture from Istanbul Technical University (BSC). She received her MSc degree in History of Architecture in Istanbul Technical University with her thesis entitled “Transitional elements of spherical superstructures in Early Ottoman Bathhouses” and completed her Phd degree from the same institution in 2015 and her dissertation title is “Alexandre Vallaury, An Architect with Beaux Arts Background: His Career As An Architect and a Professor”. She is currently an assistant professor in the Department of Architecture in Gebze Technical University in Kocaeli. Her areas of interest and fields of study include Late Ottoman Architecture, Ecole des Beaux Arts and Eclecticicism in Architecture, The Development of Ottoman ports in 19th Century, Ottoman Imperial School of Fine Arts and its impacts on cultural policies of late Ottoman Empire.
Shaping Modern Urban Lives in Turkey – Proliferation of High Rise Apartment Blocks
Research Abstract: According to the World Bank, Turkey has been witnessing one of the world’s most dramatic and transformative urbanizations in the past 70 years. Today, Turkish cities accommodate approximately 75% of the country’s population, as opposed to 25% in the 1950s. Hence, especially since the early 2000s, the increase in large scale apartment complexes and satellite cities becomes visible almost all over Turkey. Individual housing projects – especially in the context of controversial urban transformation schemes – were accompanied by the unease of scholars and civil society organizations. Some research projects indicate rising segregation and social inequalities through mass housing projects, especially considering urban minorities, some, on the other hand, show the actual possibility of upward social mobility and the associated modern, secure and healthy way of life. Yet, social science research has been rather piecemeal and lacks references to the larger urban society. Taking a macro perspective, I’m comparing and analyzing different case studies to detect the impact of an alleged ‘apartmentization’ on the Turkish urban society in my dissertation project. In close interaction with the case studies and my own data, derived from expert interviews, I seek a theory generating approach to identify and describe different categories, like urban fragmentation, concepts of neighborhood and perceptions of modernity.
Bio: Lisanne Riedel is currently PhD student and research associate at Bonn University. She holds a BA degree in Sociology from Bielefeld University and a MA degree in “Societies, Globalization and Development” (Sociology) from Bonn University. She is teaching University courses on urbanization and societal change in Asia as well as qualitative methods of empirical social research on BA and MA level. She is part of the ‘Bonn International Graduate School – Oriental and Asian Sciences’ (BIGS-OAS) and pursues her PhD research on urbanization and housing in Turkey since October 2015.
Firuzan Melike Sümertaş
‘Reading’ an Urban Assemblage Through ‘Old’ Istanbul: Actors and Networks of a Late Nineteenth Century City
Research Abstract: This research focuses on Istanbul in the second half of 19th century and it reads the transformation of the urban architectural/archeological context through an assemblage of urban actors. It makes use of urban space in a variety of scales as the site of concurrence to sense how different modes of engagement had shaped the contact between the inhabitants of the city and its physical context. Particular attention is given to the (historical) intramural town where these actors, which include persons and institutions, had initiated and implemented projects, research or intellectual interest on. The project also has an agenda of hearing the voice of the Greek (Greek - Orthodox) members of the Ottoman society, as less heard voices of particularly on urban / architectural / archeological context of the late 19th century Istanbul. So particular attention is given to both Greek literature produced in the 19th century on Istanbul and Greek persons and institutions who had initiated projects as well as intellectual interest as initial points. Starting from a communal focus, the study however, aims to outline the extra-communal impact of the body of knowledge that is produced by these actors, through the analysis of the networks that are created around them. The intramural town, the oldest settlement of Istanbul, will be assessed as the site of encounter of this assemblage of networks.
Bio: Firuzan Melike Sumertas has a B.Arch degree from Middle East Technical University, Department of Architecture and an M.A. degree from the same university, Program in Architectural History. She continues her studies at Boğaziçi University, Department of History, Ph.D program. Her tentative dissertation title is: “‘Reading’ an Urban Assemblage Through ‘Old’ Istanbul: Actors and Networks in a Late Nineteenth Century City”. Her research interests include 19th century Ottoman and 20th ct. Early Republican Architectural/Urban/Archeological and Visual Cultures and Non-Muslims (Particularly Greek-Orthodox) in the Ottoman and Early Republican contexts. She has presented papers and published articles in both domestic and international milieus and contributed to various research projects. In 2012-2013 academic year, she was a Fulbright Visiting Student Researcher at Princeton University, USA. She has worked at Anadolu University (Eskişehir), Department of Architecture from 2005 to 2012 and taught Architectural Design Studio and gave Architectural History lectures. Since 2013, she works at Boğaziçi University History Department as a Research Assistant where she TA’s world history courses.
Workplace-Dwelling Relationship in Istanbul: From the Late Ottoman Period to Present
Research Abstract: This study focuses on dwelling-workplace relationship and the changes in daily life from late Ottoman Era to present. Since the beginning of the 20th century, Istanbul underwent a great transformation. This transformation expressed itself in Central Business District, residential areas, economic and social geography, intra-urban mobility, dwelling-workplace relationship, time space perception of citizens and their daily life practices. Judicial sector is a primary urban producer service in Central Business District. Hence this study will focus on lawyers and the changes in their dwelling-workplace relationships through a periodisation of these changes on the basis of several available documental sources. The main source that I will consult is the Istanbul Bar Association Directories (Istanbul Barosu Levhaları) which are periodically published and which includes all the home and work addresses of the city’s lawyers. This database will be digitized and geographically coordinated to visualize their marks on daily life and represent them geographically. Both individual movements in their daily lives and their movements over the years will be analysed by utilising this database through the “time geography” schema. In order to study the macroform of Istanbul, CBD, residential space developments and the changes in daily life practices, this database will be subjected to a Multiple Correspondence Analysis.
Bio: Murat Tülek is a PhD student at Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University, Department of Urban and Regional Planning. He graduated from the same university in 2010 and received his master’s degree with the thesis entitled “Research of The Spatial Change in Eminönü Coast: Balikpazari and Yemiş Quay at The Beginning of 20th Century” in 2014. His research interests include urban history, cartography and economic geography. He specialized in visualization of historical data sets, geographic information systems and interactive mapping. Since 2013, he has been conducting an interactive mapping project called “Istanbul’s Mega Projects.” Currently he works on his project entitled “The Changes in Daily Life After The First Bosphorus Bridge” funded by SALT Research.
Özlem Ünsal Kavlak
Urban Transformation in Upper-middle Class Neighbourhoods: The Case of Bağdat Avenue and Its Surroundings
Research Abstract: The aim of this project is to tackle the impact of a particular law (i.e. Law No. 6306 for The Transformation of Urban Areas Under Disaster Risk) on such neighbourhoods as Erenköy, Suadiye, Fenerbahçe, Caddebostan, Çiftehavuzlar and Şaşkınbakkal - located within the jurisdiction of Kadıköy Municipality and the surroundings of Bağdat Avenue in Istanbul- on the grounds of the residents’ and private contractors’ experiences. Released in 2012 and representing the most recent ring added to the chain of Turkey’s urban transformation policies, the law is being instrumentalized for the creation of more secure and sustainable cities in the face of disaster risks awaiting Turkey. While implementations and consequences based on Law No. 6306 are still in formation, it is important to observe its impacts within upper middle class neighbourhoods by looking at the various forms of socio-economic gains and injustices taking shape so that such policies can be improved and advanced further.
Bio: Özlem Ünsal is an Istanbul based urban researcher working on urban policies, community mobilization and rights to the city. Having received her BA degree in Media and Communication Systems from İstanbul Bilgi University and MA degree in Media and Communication Studies from Goldsmiths College, she completed her PhD thesis on a comparative analysis of neighbourhood movements in two inner-city poverty and conservation zones of Istanbul (namely Sulukule and Tarlabaşı), undergoing state-led urban transformation at the City University of London, Department of Sociology. She still continues to work on the transformative capacities of social relations within the context of urban change while at the same time collaborating with professionals from such fields as architecture and urban design/planning for the development of independent projects. Some of her written works appeared in such monthly magazines and periodicals as Betonart, Yeni Mimar and Express.
Derya Dilara Akgüner
Global Impacts - Global Cities – Global Citizens: Globalisation, Cosmopolitanism, and Social Cohesion / Connectivity in the Urban Public Spheres of Istanbul, Berlin, New York, London, and Melbourne.
Research Abstract: The global city and its citizens are changing with global social, cultural, and political impacts felt within both urban public spaces, and citizens’ daily personal, public, and private lives. Both the city and its citizens propel changes upon one another. Not only has the core aesthetic of global cities changed rapidly overtime, but the very use, creation, and understanding of the city has been modified to adjust to global impacts felt within urban public spaces. The global city is growing to house many different groups within it. As the city grows, it accommodates newcomers and with them new ideas and power structures - dynamics. These differing personal spaces are shaping and imprinting their blended understandings of life upon the city thereby constantly re-creating urban public spaces. The growing presence of newcomers within the urban public spaces of these cities, has added to their cosmopolitan, diverse, and multi-culture nature. In some instances it is possible to witness the fusion of cultures morphing into an all-together new transnational public identity. The increase in population within these cities – the quest to find a new home and a “better” life is most striking within the context of international migration to large global urban spaces. Although the growth of cosmopolitanism, on the one hand enables a new and vibrant life to the city, it has also highlighted major fault lines within these societies challenging the level of social cohesion, co-existence, and connectivity present. This project aims to explore and ascertain two main components of contemporary urban public life within the global cities of – Istanbul, Berlin, London, New York, and Melbourne. The first focuses on the level of social cohesion, co-existence, and more so the sense of connection felt between differing groups within the urban public sphere and whether this has improved over time. The second investigates the social and cultural changes in the urban public sphere, with the fusion of differing worldviews and groups. Both of these components will use international migrants as a case study to further delve into broader contemporary urban public issues of social cohesion / co-existence and connectivity. The project will also survey the role of youth social movements, art, and other alternative methods, in creating and fostering an all-inclusive society. The aim of this project is to explore and document the experiences and perceptions of several different groups on social cohesion / connection and creation / use of public space, with a main focus on international migration.
Bio: Dr. Derya Dilara Akguner has completed her PhD (July 2015) titled, International & Domestic Political Changes - Istanbulites’ Perceptions in the Contemporary Urban Public Sphere, at Monash University, in Melbourne, Australia. She holds a BA from Deakin University (partly completed at Bogazici University) in International Relations and Politics, and an MA with Honours at The University of Sydney, where her thesis was on the European Union and Turkey. She has worked in various academic and professional positions at international non-government organisations. She is now working on her post-doctorate project at the Istanbul Studies Center, Kadir Has University, Istanbul, which explores global impacts, global cities, and global citizens. She is also working on publishing work from her PhD thesis, including developing educational documentaries on various issues within the urban public spheres of global cities - including migration, social cohesion / connectivity, youth movements and gatherings, street art, and social and cultural change. Her research interests also include contemporary Turkish, European, Mediterranean, and Middle Eastern international and domestic politics, urban politics and sociology, the public sphere, freedoms, civic participation, social cohesion, incoming migration, and cosmopolitanism.
Ayşe Seda Yüksel
The Construction of Urban Entrepreneurial Regimes in the Southeast Region of Turkey: The Cases of Gaziantep and Diyarbakır
Research Abstract: My research aims to understand the differing processes of localization of neoliberal policies and urban entrepreneurial regimes that are mostly defined by the latter in the southeast region of Turkey, a region that went through a high-speed economic globalization in the last ten years. By focusing on two cities in the region, namely Gaziantep and Diyarbakır, this research aims to provide a comparative-critical analysis of the ways urban entrepreneurial regimes are constituted through urban coalitions, various alliances and conflicts between political and economic elites and the broader politico-economic context that give shape to the constitution of local markets and their inner dynamics.
Bio: Ayşe Seda Yüksel received her PhD from Central European University, Department of Sociology and Social Anthropology in 2014. Her PhD dissertation, The Localization of Neoliberalism: State Rescaling, War and Culture in Southeast Turkey focuses on the processes of neoliberal restructuring and the constitution of local markets in southeast Turkey since the early 2000s. In the last two years, Yuksel worked as a Post-doc researcher at Vienna University and as an independent researcher at various NGOs and universities including Helsinki Citizens’ Assembly and Cambridge University. She has research and teaching experience in the areas of political and economic sociology, anthropology, cultural theory and media studies. Her current research interests include processes of capitalist urbanization, Kurdish issue in Turkey, state rescaling, material culture and construction of markets and urban images.
Marsha McGraw Olive
The Political Economy of Land Privatization: Istanbul and Moscow Compared
Research Abstract: Are Istanbul and Moscow poised to help Turkey and Russia reach their goal of high-income status, as proclaimed by Presidents Erdogan and Putin? The research will explore how the rule of law for urban land influences political and economic development in two middle-income countries with similar traditions of land ownership. It is generally accepted that vibrant and productive cities are a sine qua non for national wealth. The premise, to be tested, is that efficient land institutions are essential for economic success in metropolitan areas. As megacities, Istanbul and Moscow have much in common: multitudinous migrants, tedious traffic, sprawling boundaries, and a history of state-owned land that carried over from the Ottoman and Russian/Soviet empires. Land privatization began in earnest in the 1980s in Turkey and the 1990s in Russia, accompanied in major cities by a frenzy of construction and economic and social upheaval. In Istanbul and Moscow, massive migration and urban redevelopment accelerated demand for real estate, leading to dizzying increases in land values. Urban projects, frequently conducted without public consultations or transparent tenders, also ignited civic unrest as residents decried the loss of green space, land rights, or cultural assets. Yet there is a critical difference: in Istanbul, urban land was selectively privatized to businesses and citizens, while in Moscow, the municipality remained the monopoly landowner until 2012. The research will assess how urban land institutions (property rights, zoning and planning regulations, tax laws) impact socio-economic outcomes at the municipal level. More generally, it aims to elucidate the political economy factors that are influencing the rule of law for urban land development in Istanbul and Moscow compared to cities in high-income countries. The findings will help “decentralize” the debate in the scholarly literature over the importance of institutions for growth and development.
Bio: Dr. Marsha McGraw Olive recently retired after a long career in the World Bank, where she managed country and lending programs related to national and urban development, most recently as Country Manager in Tajikistan. In 2015 she was awarded a Ph.D. in International Studies from Johns Hopkins University with concentrations in International Political Economy, Comparative Politics, and Russian and Eurasian Studies. Her dissertation -- “Institutional Change in Russia: The Case of Urban Land Rights” – forms the basis for the political economy analysis in this research project.